Unconscious processThe conscious and subconscious process
DispositionalSituationally determined
Associated with pathologyAssociated with normality
Oriented towards blocking instinctual inner drivesOriented towards controlling external/internal stressors
Post-affectiveThey may be activated in any stage of the stress reaction
Hierarchical organizationSituational Effectiveness
They block expression of affectsThey allow expression(assertion) of affects
Rigid, ritualizedFlexible
Oriented towards the pastOriented towards present and future
They distort realityThey allow confrontation with reality
Generated at the Ego-Id interfaceGenerated in contact with reality
ONSETAbruptUsually insidious; can be abrupt in stroke/trauma
COURSEFluctuatesSlow decline
DURATIONHours to weeksMonths to years
ATTENTIONImpairedIntact early; often impaired late
SLEEP-WAKEDisruptedUsually normal
ORIENTATIONImpairedIntact early; impaired late
BEHAVIOURAgitated, withdrawn/depressed, or combinationIntact early
SPEECHIncoherent; rapid/slowedWood finding problems
THOUGHTSDisorganized, delusionalImprovised
PERCEPTIONSHallucinations/illusionsUsually intact early
Symptoms that affect the brain and central nervous system and autonomic nervous system.These are the abnormalities in mind that result in a persistent behavior pattern that can seriously affect your day-to-day function and life.
Cause: Lifestyle-related causes, infections, genetics, nutrition-related causes, environmental influences, physical injuries, etc.Cause: Chemical imbalance in the brain, childhood experiences, heredity illness, stress/prenatal exposure, etc.
Signs can vary depending upon the type of disorder as well as a specific area of the body that is affected.Can have serious event life-threatening complications, which often improves but, relapses are possible.
Has physical as well as emotional symptoms.Multiple psychological symptoms can occur at the same time.
Treatment involves medication that is generally taken for a long period of time.Treatment involves psychotherapy along with some medications.
Illness is the subjective negative experience that comes with ill health.A disease is an identifiable condition affecting an organ or organism.
An illness is mostly curable.Some disease can’t be cured, but can only be managed.
State where the person has feelings of pain/discomfort that doesn’t have an identifiable reason.Result from a pathological response to external/internal factors.
Vague condition that causes discomfort/pain.Condition where the body/parts of the body of a person doesn’t work properly.
There is really no identifiable reason behind the condition, which we feel illness.If the condition behind the illness is identified, then it is more often referred to as a disease.
Concrete reality.Figurative and have a character of subjectivity.
Occur in external objective space.Appear in inner subjective space.
Clearly delineated.Incomplete and poorly delineated.
Sensory elements are full and fresh.Sensory elements are relatively insufficient.
Constant and remain unaltered.Dissipate and have to be recreated.
Independent of our will.Dependent on our will.
International classificationNational classification
Approved by world health assemblyApproved by APA board of trustees
Several versions  and languagesSingle version and language
Diagnostic guidelinesPrecise operational criteria
Alphanumerical codingNumerical coding
10 major categories17 major categories
Includes disorder of all medical specialtyOnly mental disorders
Multi-axial presentation: 3 axes(adult), 6 axes(children)Multi-axial presentation : 5 axes
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