MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES- 3

HALLUCINATIONILLUSION
False perceptionMerely misperception
Originates internallyOriginated externally
Associated with a mental disorderNot associated with a mental disorder
Reacts on internal stimuliReacts to external stimuli
Experienced personally and uniquelyExperienced universally
PHOBIAFEAR
An illnessAn emotion
Unnecessary conditionNecessary for humans
Long term illnessTemporary
Excessive fear to specific object/eventNatural response to an event/object
Perceived threatsDanger is real
Needs treatmentGoes with time
FEAR: Source of danger is obvious and specified (I’m afraid of dark/heights)
ANXIETY: Cannot specify danger (I’m anxious about parents health) PHOBIA TYPES

PANIC ATTACKANXIETY ATTACK
Usually occurs unexpectedlyUsually has specific triggers
Sudden and extremely disruptiveNormally builds in intensity
Usually more intense physical symptomsCan be mild, moderate, or severe
Triggered by the body’s “flight” or “fight” responseFocused on specific stressors themselves
Usually extended over a longer period of timeUsually quick and more intense
Symptoms include muscle tension, disturbed sleep, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, restlessness, etc.Symptoms include: shaking, chest pain, discomfort, heart palpitations, fear of dying/losing control, feeling of choking, etc.
Anxiety disorders
INSOMNIASLEEPLESSNESS
Difficulty falling asleep at nightInability to sleep at times
Prolonged stateShorter duration
Non restorative sleepSleeping is comparatively peaceful
Waking up during the nightNot able to fall asleep
FatigueLow energy
Needs medical interventionDoesn’t need medical help
Problem arises at work or school
COUNSELLINGPSYCHOTHERAPY
Short term processLong term process
Secondary processPrimary process
Address issues in less-depthAddress issues in a very deep manner
Support to perform day-to-day activities in a normal and efficient mannerUncover the foundation of the problem and address it in the most efficient manner
Helps in prevention, facilitating communication, increasing awareness of one’s own rational style.Helps in cure/care, autonomy.
Client find solutions by themselvesDependent on psychotherapist
Focus on present problems and situationsFocus on chronic or recurrent problems
Focuses on assisting a person to changeFocuses on causing change
Deals with people having poor coping and decision making skillDeals people with mental dysfunction
Specific situations or behaviorsOverall patterns, big picture-oriented
Action and behavior focusedFeeling and experience focused
Talk therapyMay include testing (such as personality, intelligence), talk therapy, other therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy
FreudAdler
Freud is an Austrian neurologist.Adler is more of a medical doctor and psychotherapist.
CausalityTeleology
FirstbornSecondborn
Women were a mysteryFeminist
Attached to motherMore social with peers
Married to submissiveMarried a feminist
Man is motivated by sex and aggression.Man is motivated by social influences and striving for superiority.
Freud, on the fragmented view of an individual’s ego, superego, and id principlesAdler stresses more on understanding the person as a whole being
Present behavior is caused by the past.Present behavior is shaped by the future.
People have no choice in shaping their personalities.People are largely responsible for who they are.
Emphasizes on the unconscious.People are aware of what they are doing and why.
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