AIM: To assess the verbal intelligence of an individual using Malins Intelligence Scale For Indian Children (MISIC).
The word intelligence derives from the Latin word intelligere that means to understand or recognize.
Intelligence is a bunch of different abilities like -understanding novel stimuli, learning, language, and communication, being aware of the environment, the ability to reason, plan and solve problems creatively.
An individual’s aptitude can be defined as their innate ability to acquire skills. An aptitude test will tell you what an individual can accomplish given the right conditions and training. If they are trained properly, a person with a high mechanical aptitude can be successful as an engineer. Similarly, a person with good language skills can excel as a writer.
A person’s interest is the preference he or she has for a particular activity as compared to others. An assessment of student’s interests can be used to help them choose subjects or courses they are likely to enjoy and find satisfying. A knowledge of interests facilitates making choices that promote life satisfaction and performance at work.
Definitions of intelligence
American Psychological Association (APA) refers to intelligence as intellectual functioning.
Albert Binet defines intelligence as “the ability to judge, understand, and reason”.
“Intelligence is the capacity to form concepts and to grasp their significance” (Terman 1916).
According to Wechsler (1944), “Intelligence is the total capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment.”
Sternberg and Kaufman (2011) defined intelligence as one’s ability to learn, think, and adapt to the environment.
Initially, they emphasized intelligence as an ability or general mental ability but now most psychologists agree that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does.
Intelligence: Interplay of Nature and Nurture
Studies on twins and adopted children provide evidence of hereditary influences on intelligence. When identical twins grow up together, their intelligence correlates to almost 0.90. When identical twins are separated early in childhood, they also show considerable similarity in their intellectual, personality, and behavioral characteristics. According to the study, the intelligence of identical twins raised in different environments correlates with 0.72, that of fraternal twins reared together with 0.60, that of siblings reared together with 0.50, and of siblings reared apart with 0.25. Moreover, studies of adopted children show the intelligence of adopted children reflects that of their biological parents, rather than that of their adoptive parents. When it comes to the role of environment, research indicates that children’s intelligence level tends to grow closer to that of their adoptive parents as they grow in age. The intelligence scores of adopted children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to increase significantly when they are adopted into families with higher socioeconomic status. Evidence suggests that deprivation of the environment lowers intelligence, while good nutrition, family upbringing, and quality education increase it. Psychologists generally agree that intelligence results from a complex interplay between heredity (nature) and environment (nurture). A person’s individual development is actually shaped by the opportunities and support they receive from their environment within the boundaries of their hereditary characteristics.
Assessment of Intelligence :
Attempts to measure intelligence were made for the first time in 1905 by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. With the revised scale of 1908, there was introduced the concept of Mental Age (MA), a measure of someone’s intellectual development relative to their peers. A mental age of 5 suggests that a child’s performance on an intelligence test is similar to the average performance level of 5-year olds. Chronological Age (CA) is calculated by the biological age from birth. A bright child’s MA is more than her/his CA; for a dull child, MA is below the CA. Retardation was defined by Binet and Simon as mental age years below the chronological age. In 1912, William Stern, a German psychologist, devised the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ refers to mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
IQ = (MA/CA) x 100
Types of Intelligence Tests :
There are several types of intelligence tests. They can be classified as individual or group tests according to their administrative procedures. Depending on the nature of the items used, they can also be classified as verbal or performance tests. Depending on how much an intelligence test favors one culture over another, it can be judged as culturally fair or culturally biased. You can choose the test according to the purpose of use.
Improving our intelligence:
Intelligence is not a set trait but it is a changeable, flexible ability to learn and stimulate the brain that can improve over time. Practicing certain lifestyle habits may help improve one’s overall intelligence, which includes two types which are crystallized intelligence which is associated with intellectual skill development, and fluid intelligence which is associated with abstract reasoning. An individual can improve various areas of intelligence through:
- Memory activities:
It can help to improve memory, reasoning, and language skills. Memory games have been used in research studies to explore how memory relates to language and object knowledge. Activities that involve memory training include:
- Jigsaw puzzles
- Crossword puzzles
- Concentration card game, or card matching
- Executive control activities:
Executive control is the ability to control complex cognitive activities. It is a part of executive function which also includes executive management and regulation. Research suggests that executive function is strongly tied to fluid reasoning, one aspect of human intelligence. Activities that involve executive control training include:
- Red light, green light
- Visuospatial reasoning activities:
It involves the mental processes related to physical representations. In one study, researchers found that improving visuospatial reasoning led to an increase in IQ test scores. In that study, memory and executive control activities were used in part to help improve participants’ visuospatial reasoning. Activities that involve visual and spatial training include:
- Point-of-view activities
- 3 – D models
- Unfolded prisms
Some Misuses of Intelligence Tests:
Unless used by a trained investigator, they may be misused either intentionally or unintentionally. Some of the ill-effects of intelligence testing by naive testers are:
- Poor performance on a test may attach a stigma to children and thereby adversely affect their performance and self-respect.
- The tests may invite discriminating practices from parents, teachers and elders in the society.
- Administering a test biased in favour of the middle class and higher class populations may underestimate the IQ of children coming from disadvantaged sections of the society.
- Intelligence tests do not capture creative potentialities and practical side of intelligence, and they also do not relate much to success in life. Intelligence can be a potential factor for achievement in various spheres of life.
It is suggested that one should guard against erroneous practices associated with intelligence tests and take the help of trained psychologists to analyze an individual’s strengths and weaknesses.
MALINS INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR INDIAN CHILDREN (MISIC) :
Malin’s has been adapted from the American test WISC developed by Dr. David Wechsler.
The Indian Scale has been constructed by Dr. Arthur J. Malin of Nagpur. During adaptation, an almost total revision had to be made of the test, especially of the culturally biased verbal items. So the test was named as Intelligence Scale for Indian Children- ISIC or MISIC. English is the only language that applies universally through India; hence WISC has adapted in English for English Speaking children in India. Later it was also adapted in Hindi and Marathi as India is a country dominated by many regional languages.
MISC is an intelligence test for children from the ages of 6 to 15 years 11 months. It is administered individually and takes about 2 to 2-1/2 hours. The test comprises 12 subtests divided into two groups, Verbal and Performance. The verbal scale consists of 6 subtests and the Performance Scale consists of 5 subtests.
- Information Test: The test consists of questions about factual knowledge of persons, places, and common phenomena. It has total of 30 questions. Questions 1-5 are used for children below 8 years old or suspected mental defects. Each item is scored 1 or 0. The subject above 8 years is given credits for question 1-5 directly, if the subject passes items 6,7 & 8. Discontinue the test after 5 consecutive failures. Examples- How many ears you have?
- General Comprehension Test: The test consists of questions about certain practices and behavior under certain situations. It measures conventional knowledge and knowledge of social appropriateness. It has total 14 questions. The test is discontinued after 3 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored from 0-2. Items 1-5 are scored 2 points if the subject takes personal responsibility, and 1 point if the subject knows what is to be done, but the responsibility is shirked away. For items 6-14, 2 points are given when the subject gives 2 good reasons and 1 point when the subject gives one reason.
Example- What should you do if you cut your finger?
- Arithmetic Test– The test consists of questions based on a simple mathematical calculation which are solved mentally. Problems 1-3 are for the subjects below 8 years or suspected mental defectives. Discontinue after 3 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored 1 or 0. Credit is given to the subject for the first 3 items if the subject above 8 years solves items 4 and 5 correctly.
For example- if I break this pencil in half, how many pieces there will be?
- Analogy & Similarity test–
Analogy: The test consists of 4 incomplete sentences based on analogies that the subject has to complete. The test is for subjects below 8 years old. Each correct analogy is given a score of 2.
Example- Lemon is sour, but sugar is……….
Similarity– The test consists of questions where the subject has to find the similarity between the two things. It measures verbal concept formation. This test is for subjects above 8 years. Discontinue the test after 3 consecutive failures or return to the analogy. Each item is scored from 0-2, depending on the answer. If the subject answers the 3 items correctly in similarity, the subject is given the credit for 4 analogies.
- Vocabulary Test– The test consists of the question that measures the subject’s general intelligence. It reflects the subject’s breadth of experience and ideas developed over the years. The test has 40 items. Discontinue the test after 5 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored from 0 to 2. Except items 1-6 which are scored as 0 or 2. The subject can start directly from the 10th item. The subject is credited 2 points directly for the previous 9 items if he/she gives 2 point definition for 10th– 14th items.
Example- cycle, shoe, etc.
- Digit Span Test– In this test the subject is told a sequence of number verbally. The subject is supposed to repeat the number in the same order. The test is divided into 2 types. They are:
Digit Span Forward- the digits are repeated as they are called out.
Digit Span Backward- the digits are repeated in the reverse order.
The score of the test is the highest number of digits repeated without error, both forward and backward digits together.
- Picture Completion Test– The test consists of twenty pictures in which some part of each picture is missing. The subject is supposed to tell which part of the picture is missing. The subject gets fifteen seconds to examine each picture. The test is discontinued after four failures.
Scoring- One point is given for each correct response except for the last five pictures where an extra bonus score is credited if at least three pictures of the last five are correct.
- Block Design Test– The test consists of 7 coloured blocks and a booklet with pictures of the block arranged according to specific geometric designs. The subject has to arrange the blocks according to the design shown in the picture. The task requires concept formation.
Scoring- the subject is given four points plus a bonus according to the table for designs 1 to 7. No points are given for the incomplete design.
- Object Assembly- This test consists of puzzles that the subject has to rearrange in meaningful design. It requires visual-motor co-ordination, plan fullness and concept formation. The test has four puzzles. They are manikin, horse, face and auto.
Man: For perfect performance, 4 points are rewarded or bonus. 3 points if legs are interchanged or inverted. 2 points if legs or arms are omitted.1 point if the only trunk is correct.
Horse: Perfect performance is rewarded 6 points or bonus 5 points if the only stomach is inverted 4 points if the midpiece is omitted or legs interchanged. 3 points if the midpiece is inverted and legs interchanged. 2 points if the midpiece or leg is omitted.1 point is given for every two pieces joined correctly.
Face: Perfect performance is awarded 6 points or bonus. 5 points if eyes are inverted or hairpieces omitted. 4 points if mouth and chin omitted. 3 points if large half (2 pieces) are omitted. 1 point if large half and hair are omitted. ½ point is given for each proper joint separate or joined to the whole.
Auto: Perfect performance is given 6 points or a bonus. 5 points if the door is inverted or reversed. 4 points for omitting pieces 4 & 5 or omitting piece 7. 3 points for omitting 7 and inverting or reversing piece 4, also omitting pieces 4, 5, & 7. 1 point is given for each proper joint.
- Coding– The test consists of certain symbols that are paired with numbers or shapes. The subject has to learn them and pair with the appropriate corresponding numbers. Concentration and speed of work are important factors in this test. The test has two parts, Coding A & Coding B.
Coding A: this part is for subjects under 8 years or suspected mental defects. The test should be completed in 120 seconds. The score is the number of designs completed in that time. (Excluding samples) If the subject completes the test before time bonus point is given.
Coding B: this part is for subjects above 8 years. This section has to be completed in 120 seconds. 1 point is given for each correct response.
- Mazes– The test requires the subject to trace through the maze and reach the end point. The test has 5 mazes which have to be completed in the given time limit.
Scoring- maze A, B, C are given 2 points if solved without error. 1 point if completed with 2 errors. Mazes 1-5 are given 3 points without error, 2 points if one error is committed, 1 point if two errors are committed, and 0 points when the subject passes the maximum allowed error.
Psychometric properties of Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC)
Reliability- MISIC was established with the test-retest method and yielded a Pearson’s Product Moment correlation coefficient of 0.91 for full-scale IQ results.
Validity- MISIC established concurrent as well as congruent validity. The former was established from school ranking whereas later was obtained from an adapted version of California short-form test of Mental Maturity for the upper age level and from the good enough Draw a Man test for the lower age level. Both yielded a coefficient of 0.63
Norms- Indian norms are based on percentile points which were converted into IQs by the Thomson formula. Using this formula anchor IQs were obtained on the basis of the standard deviation of 15 IQ.
When the IQs were plotted it gave a platykurtic graph skewed to the right. To make the graph normal two modifications were made; a hypothetical 5% was added to the lower second and third standard deviation and some other modifications were made at the other extreme too. Most of the raw scores fell under the 16th percentile to 84th percentile; this made the 95th percentile a very high scoring norm. The abnormality of the graph was found to be due to 2 reasons; lack of subnormal cases and lack of extra normal cases.
Scoring of Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC)
For scoring the test, the raw score of all the subtests is totaled and converted into the Test Quotients (TQs) by means of the ‘T table’ in the manual. After converting into TQs, the average of each group has to be added and found out separately. To obtain full-scale IQ both the Verbal & Performance test totals are added and then divided for the average If only a verbal group of TQs is obtained they can be balanced by adding 6% of the TQs.
MISIC uses the concept of point scale. All the items of a given type are grouped together in the increasing order of difficulty. The point or raw score of each subtest is totaled and converted into TQs, which are actually IQs. The subtests TQs are then added and group averaged and full scale is similarly obtained.
Sample Size- for standardization purposes over 1200 children were given full individual tests during the past 6 years and over 3000 were sampled in subtest trial runs. An average of about 90 samples were used for each level including boys and girls in a ratio of 20:30. Age norms are based on a 12-month interval.
Regional Norms- For the English version, samples were taken from Nagpur, Mumbai, Shimla, Mangalore & New Delhi. For Marathi and Hindi versions, samples were taken from Nagpur alone.
Application of MISIC:
- Used as a tool in the educational setting as well as clinical setting.
- Helps teachers and parents in guiding students for educational and vocational planning.
- Used to diagnose learning disabilities in students.
- To identify children with ADHD problem
- Used to identify talented and gifted students, and also mentally challenged students.
- Used in identifying students cognitive strengths and weaknesses.
- Used in tracking intellectual development.
MISIC Manual, Pen / Pencil
PROCEDURE TO FIND THE PARTICIPANT-
The participant was chosen on a random basis as convenient since it was highly difficult to find a person suffering from or diagnosed with ADHD.
The participant was first given a brief description of the test. He was also informed that this test would be conducted entirely at his own discretion which implies that he could decline his participation in this experiment if it was not convenient. He was then given a consent form and all the relevant details related to the form were explained before soliciting the signature.
INFORMED CONSENT FORM
This form seeks to take your consent to participate in a study. The following will provide you with information about the study that will help you in deciding whether or not you wish to participate. If you agree to participate, please be aware that you are free to withdraw at any point throughout the duration of the experiment. All information you provide will remain confidential and will not be associated with your name. If for any reason during this study you do not feel comfortable, you may leave the laboratory and your information will be discarded. When this study is complete you will be provided with the results of the experiment if you request them, and you will be free to ask any questions. Please indicate with your signature on the space below that you understand your rights and agree to participate in the experiment. Your participation is solicited, yet strictly voluntary. All information will be kept confidential and your name will not be associated with any research findings.
SIGNATURE OF THE APPLICANT (PARENT)
A rapport was established before giving the instructions by giving him a brief detail of the study. It was also ensured that the details were explained to the participant in the language which was most agreeable to him. All the arrangements regarding the experiment were arranged in an appropriate manner. The participant’s concerns if any were also managed for the smooth conduction of the experiment.
- NAME: Ani
- AGE: 14
- GENDER: FEMALE
- Information Test: The test consists of questions about factual knowledge of persons, places, and common phenomena. I will going to ask some basic knowledge question you just have answer.
- General Comprehension Test: The test consists of questions about certain practices and behavior under certain situations. It measures conventional knowledge and knowledge of social appropriateness. I will going to ask some basic knowledge question you just have answer.
- Arithmetic Test– The test consists of questions based on a simple mathematical calculation which are solved mentally. I will give you some mathematical question you have solve them without using the pen and paper.
- Analogy & Similarity test– I will going to ask some question . which you have to find the similarity between the two things.
- Vocabulary Test– The test consists of the question that measures the subject’s general intelligence. Example- cycle, shoe, etc. 6 Digit Span Test– I will going to give you a set of numbers. What you have to do is you have to repeat the set of numbers in the same sequence. I will going to give you a set of numbers. What you have to do is you have to repeat the set of numbers in the reverse sequence.
To begin forming rapport making the participant comfortable, the tester introduce herself and told about the test and the procedure about the test and she also informed that the participant was free to choose whether or not she or he wanted to take part in the test or not and she /he also free to drop out ant time even if testing has begun. And after that test instruction was given to the client.
- It was made sure that all the environmental conditions such as adequate room temperature, ventilation, lighting and comfortable sitting arrangement was provided to the subject.
- All relevant materials were concealed and taken out when required.
- The purpose of the test was not revealed to the subject even after the administration.
- Adequate support was formed so as to provide the subject with the sense of ease and comfort so as to ensure correct responses.
- Instructions were read out thoroughly and the subject was encouraged to clarify her doubts.
- The subject was quietly observed while being tested.
- It was made sure that the subject was asked about any past or present psychiatric illness or intake of any kind of drug.
|TESTS||RAW SCORES||TQ SCORE|
|General Comprehension Test||28||160|
|Analogy And Similarity Test||18||115|
|Digit Span Test||13||115|
VQ(Verbal Quotient)= Total TQ/6
712/6 = 118.6
INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION :
The verbal scales reflect the child’s ability to work with abstract symbols, the amount and degree of benefit she has received from her educational background, verbal memory abilities, and verbal fluency. The verbal I.Q was found to be 118 indicating the above-average level of verbal intelligence. On the verbal subtests, the raw scores and the corresponding IQ were as follows:
Information Test (16, 83) indicates a dull normal level of intellectual functioning in verbal ability, intellectual curiosity, and long-term memory. General Comprehension Test (28, 160) indicates a very superior level of intellectual functioning in social judgment, reality awareness, and understanding. She can grasp the social rules and regulations very well and has knowledge about moral codes. Arithmetic Test (18, 115) indicates an above-average level of intellectual functioning in numerical reasoning and speed of numerical manipulation. Similarities and Analogies Test (18, 115) indicates an above-average level of intellectual functioning in abstract intelligence and verbal reasoning and in categorizing meaningful relationships. Vocabulary Test (40, 95) indicates an above-average intellectual functioning in language usage, word knowledge, and verbal fluency. Digit Span Test (13,115) indicates above average intellectual functioning, in remembering numbers forward and backward.
Note :- To clarify, the provided sample is solely for the purpose of education, no person‘s identity is been disclosed here, while following all other norms and ethical standards of the community.