AIM: To study the personality profile of the subject using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2 ).
In psychology, personality is the collection of emotional, thought and behavioural patterns that is consistent over time. The word originates from the Latin word ‘persona’ which means ‘mask’, used to hide the identity on stage. In other words, “Persona means as appears to others and not as one actually in.”
According to ALLPORT (1955), Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics
behaviour and thought.
Techniques of assessing personality :
Assessment refers to the procedures used to evaluate or differentiate people on the basis of certain characteristics” It is used for a variety of purposes such as studying diversity in people, finding relationships among variables, studying developmental changes, diagnosis placement, counselling etc. Personality can be assessed through it.
Personality inventories are self-rating questionnaires that deal not only with overt behaviour but also with the person’s own feelings about himself, others and his environment resulting from introspection. It can be classified into types:
- Those that assess specific traits.
- Evaluate adjustment to several aspect of the environment.
- Classify into clinical groups.
- Screens persons into 2-3 groups
- Evaluate interests, values and attitudes.
Projection is an unconscious process that provides the subject with a stimulus situation giving him/her an opportunity to impose upon it, his or her own private needs, particular perceptions and interpretations Projective techniques are open-ended and unstructured and there are no right or wrong responses Example – The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), The Rorschach Test etc.
SELF- REPORT INVENTORY
A self-report inventory is a type of psychological test in which a patient fills out a survey or a questionnaire with or without the help of a mental health professional Self-report inventories often ask direct questions about symptoms behaviours, and personality traits associated with one or m many mental disorders, personality types in order to easily gain insight into a patient’s personality or illness. Some of these are MMPI and 16-PF etc.
Situational tests are based оn structural and nonstructural test situations. They are a compromise between observational methods and standardized tests. Personality is measured on the basis of observation and rating in a given situation. The person is not aware that he is being studied. It is helpful in measuring traits like leadership, dominance, responsibilities etc.
A person’s behaviour in a variety of situations can provide us with meaningful information about her/his personality. Observation of behaviour serves as the basis of behavioural analysis. An observer’s report may contain data obtained from interviews, observation, ratings, nomination, and situational tests.
Interview methods are a means of eliciting from the subject a report of past, present and anticipated future responses. Most interviews are unstructured, but some sets of questions are asked in a given sequence. Skilled interviewers pay attention to what is said and notice how responses relate to non-verbal cues such as posture and facial expressions.
History & description of MMPI:
MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) is the most widely used objective clinical personality test in use today (Butcher & Rouse, 1996) The original MMPI was developed to diagnose specific psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. The basic purpose of the test was to differentiate among various types of mental patients as well as to distinguish between mental patients and normal people. The MMPI did indeed do that, certain types of people tend to give test responses on the test.
In July 1989. the updated and re-standardized MMPI-2 was published which was developed by Butcher J.N, Graham, J.R, Y.S Tellegen A, Dahistrom W.G., Kaenmer, B. Because the original MMPI was not widely used, great care was taken to improve them while still keeping the revision compatible. The re-standardization was based on a representative sample of 2,600 men and women ranging from 18-84years of age.
There were original 550 items, eventually, 567 items selected for MMPI-2. It was designed primarily for adults and has not yet been used for children. The items cover a wide range of topics. The test provides scores on 7 validity and 10 basic clinical scales. The test has high reliability ranging from 70-93. The MMPI revision strives to eliminate cultural bias and objectionable questions about sex and religion. Because the majority of the questions were unchanged it is possible to compare responses on the old and new forms. At present time, we don’t have enough research studies of the revision to evaluate the effectiveness adequately. Primarily research suggests that the MMPI-2 will continue to be a useful tool in personality assessment.
Development of MMPI:
An experimental test booklet designated AX (Adult experimental) was developed. All the original 550 items were retained and 154 provisional items were added, bringing the item total to 704 The additions were designed to provide better coverage of topics and areas of concern than did the original item pool (Schofield, 1960). Family functioning, eating disorders, substance abuse readiness for the treatment or rehabilitation and interference with a performance at work.
Collateral forms were created to gather biographical and supplementary information. Supplementary information included a measure of significant recent changes in the individual’s life, their spouses or live-in partners.
PREPARATION OF THE NATIONAL NORMS: A special test-retest study by Ben-Porath and Butcher (1989) comparing. responses to the original and the rewritten MMPI items. was carried out. They found, generally, that the consistency of responses of the group administered was both original and rewritten. items did not differ significantly from that of those who were administered the original items twice!
THE VALIDITY SCALES:
The MMPI-2 validity indicators are used individually and in combination to evaluate the inter predictability of each protocol. A test takes may respond in a variety of ways that compromise a record’s validity. He or she may leave a large number of items unanswered, respond randomly, either intentionally or unintentionally; and/or distort his her self-descriptions by either over-reporting or underreporting difficulties. The validity indicators are unlikely ܬܝܝܙܘdesigned to help detect these sources of protocol invalidity and to provide a basis for evaluating the impact of such distortions on the test record. The validity scales are sensitive to the test taker’s approach to the MMPI – 2, Scores on these scales may vary substantially as a function of the type of setting where the test is administered.
The different validity scales are-
Cannot Say Scale:
This is the simple frequency of the number of items omitted or marked both true and false. Large numbers of missing items call into question. on all other scales.
F (infrequency) Scale :
The F-Scale is made of 60 items Elevated scores on this scale indicate that the respondent provided a large number of infrequent and therefore unlikely answers to the MMPI-2 items. Individuals who respond randomly to the MMPI-2 either intentionally or unintentionally produce an unusual number of infrequent responses to the test resulting in elevated Scores on the F-Scale. Severe psychopathology is the uncommon general population, individuals who describe accurately the presence of severe psychopathology symptoms produce elevated scores on the F-Scale. The infrequency – pathology (Fp) scale help can differentiate between genuine psychopathology and faking bad as sources of deviation on F.
The FB scale captures infrequent responses to the latter part of the test and assists in identifying changes in the respondent’s approach to the MMP1-2 that occur over the course of the test administration. The FB scale is also sensitive to random or fixed responses, severe psychopathology and over-reporting symptoms. FB is made up of 40 items that appear throughout the latter part of the test.
Fp ( infrequency – psychopathology) Scale :
The Fp Scale provides a measure of infrequent responding that is less sensitive than F to the presence of severe psychopathology. The scores on the Fp Scale can assist in differentiation elevations on F that are products of genuine Psychopathology.
L (lie) Scale:
Originally called the “Lie” scale, this was an attempt to assess naive or unsophisticated attempts by people to present themselves in an overly favourable light. These items were, rationally derived rather than criterion keyed.
K (correction) Scale:
This scale was an attempt to assess more subtle distortion of response, particularly clinically defensive response. The K scale was constructed by comparing the response of a group of people who were known to be clinically deviant but who produced normal MMPI profiles with a group of normal people who provided normal profiles. The K scale was subsequently used to alter scores on other MMPI scales. It was reasoned that high K People give scores on the other scales which are too low. K in used to boost the scores on other scales.
S (superlative self-presentation) Scale:
The S-Scale was developed by Butcher and Han (1995) using a modification of the empirical scale development approach. Initially, items were included in a provisional scale only if they were empirically discriminated between a group of extremely defensive job applications and members of the MMPI-2 normative sample. The scale was then refined using item and content analyses designed to ensure scale homogeneity
VALIDITY TRIAL CONFIGURATION VALIDITY:
The concept of the validity of MMPI has a somewhat different meaning. It describes the test-taking attitude of individual clients i.e. whether or not the client has endorsed the test items in an obviously distorted manner. If the client has provided an accurate and consistent self-appraisal when responding to MMPI items, the profile is considered to be valid. Valid scale configuration involves only the L, F, K scales.
This is the most frequently encountered! configuration in clinical settings. The L&K scales have T-scores below 50 & F scale has a T-score above 60. In this sort of configuration, the client is admitting to personal and emotional intelligence difficulties and requesting assistance with these problems. The client ensures her capabilities in dealing with these problems.
Here the L and K scales are elevated above a T-score of least 60, while F-Scale is near to or below a T-score of 50. This client is attempting to avoid or deny unacceptable feelings impulses and problems presenting himself in the best possible light. He views the world in terms of extremes of good or bad. It occurs most frequently among defensive normal.
The 3 validity scales have a positive slope in which the L scale is less than the F scale. Generally, L iS above a T-scores of F i.e. about a T. score of 50-55 and K is in the T scores of 60-70. This configuration is typical of a normal person who has the appropriate resources for dealing with problems and who is not experiencing any stress or conflict in the present.
The 3 validity scales have a negative slope. L is greater than F which is greater than the K scale. L is elevated at a T- score of 40-45. The client is naïve and unsophisticated that is trying to look good which is usually ineffective. Such clients usually have little education and come from low socioeconomic classes.
THE CLINICAL SCALES:
The MMPI-2 clinical scales are essentially the same as for the original MMPI, but a few items were deleted from the same scales because of objectionable content. The different clinical scales are :
SCALE – 1 HYPOCHONDRIASIS
This scale is based on negative neurotic concerns over bodily functioning. It is developed concern using a group of neurotic patients who shown an excessive concern about their health, presented a variety of somatic complaints with little or no organic basis and rejected repeated insurances that there was nothing physically wrong with them.
SCALE – 2 DEPRESSION
Poor morale, lack of hope in the future and general dissatisfaction with one’s own life situation. High scores are clinical depression whilst lower scores are more general unhappiness with life.
SCALE 3: HYSTERIA
This scale was constructed using patients who exhibited some form of sensory or motor disorders for which no organic basis could be established. All of the 60 items in the original scale were retained in the MMP1-2
SCALE-4 PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE
Items on scale 4 concern the willingness to acknowledge difficulties in school and /or with the law, Other items reflect a lack of concern about most social and standards of conduct, the presence of family problems and the absence of life satisfaction.
SCALE -5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY
This scale was constructed using men who were upset about homocrotic feelings and confused about their gender role. Similar efforts to develop a measure of gender role divergence in women were not successful, but scale-5 was subsequently used for both men and women. In MMPI -2, four items were eliminated from scale -5, because of objectionable content leaving 56 items.
This scale was developed using patients primarily showing some form of pavard condition or paranoid state, but few individuals with fully developed paranoia were available for this effort. All 40 of the original items on the scale – 6 have been retained in the MMPI-2.
This scale was originally characterized by excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions and unreasonable fears, it now indicates conditions such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). It also shows abnormal fears, self-criticism, difficulties in concentration and guilt feelings.
This scale assesses a wide variety of content areas, including bizarre thought processes, and peculiar perceptions, social alienation, poor familial relationship, difficulties in concentration and impulse control, lack of deep interests; disturbing questions of self-worth and self-identity and sexual difficulties.
This scale was developed using patients in the early stages of a manic episode of manic-depressive disorder. All 46 items on the original scale have been maintained on the MMPI-2
SCALE-O SOCIAL INTROVERSION
This scale was developed by L·E· Drake. (1946) using a sample of college students who scored at the extremes of the social introversion and extroversion scale on the T-S-E (Thinking-Social-Emotional Introversion) inventory, only women were used to develop the scale but its use has been extended to men as well. One of the items on the original scale was deleted from MMP1-2, leaving 69 items.
NEUROTIC TRIAL CONFIGURATION:
This includes depression hypochondriasis and hysteria There are four types of configurations
A client with this configuration is converting distressing troubles into more rational problems or more socially acceptable i.e. a person is converting Psychological problems into somatic complaints The overall configuration reflects the amount of psychological distress the client is experiencing. T- scores in a scale-1 range from 80-90 in scale-2 about 70 while in scale-3 above 90.
All the 3 scales are elevated above a T-score of 70 with scale-1 the highest, followed by scales – 2 & 3 in descending order. Clients with such configuration have a long-standing over concerns with manifested of hypersensitivity to even they have constant physical complaints without adequate physical Pathology Somatic symptoms include nausea, dizziness insomnia, headaches These clients typically have stable work records, marital relationships.
The main feature in the elevation of scale-2. All the 3 scales are elevated scale-2 is elevated the most. These clients have a chronic neurotic condition with mixed symptomatology, multiple somatic mixed symptomatologies, Multiple somatic complaints, depression and hysteria typical. The client infrequently overcontrolled “bottled-up” emotionally fatigued, anxious and filled with self-doubts. They are described as despondent, immature and have poor motivation for treatment. Scale 2 & 3 have t-scores above To while scale-1 has a t-score below 70.
All scales above a T score of 70. Scale 3 is higher than 2 which is higher than 1. This pattern is typical of females with gynaecological complaints. Women report mental problems regarding sexual complaints such as frigidity and life long history of ill health males in their configuration are likely to be in the chronic states of anxiety and exhibits physical effects prolonged tension and worry. In both men and women, the Pattern reflects a mixed neurotic pattern with depression.
PSYCHOTIC TRIAD CONFIGURATION:
PSYCHOTIC – V
Scales 6,7,8 are involved here i.e. paranoia, psychesthenia and schizophrenia. Scales 6 & 8 have t- scores above 80 and T- scores for Scale 7 is 60. Such persons are emotionally withdrawn, isolated, suspicious, lack insight.
Reliability of the MMPI-2 :
For the purpose of restandardization of MMPI and development of MMPI-2, 2600 respondents (138 men and 1462 women) ranging from 18to90 years were tested.. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were measured. The table-given on the blank page.
Limitations of MMPI-2:
- Subject may consider some of the questions as invasive to their privacy. MMPI-2 is a very lengthy test consisting of 567 statements. The subjects got bored and it is difficult to conduct on depressed patients.
- Subject usually have a tendency to respond in the same manner to all the items. It is called as response set.
- Environmental, cultural and even religious differences are bound to occur. Sometimes the subject keep ageing with items. even though they don’t apply to him or her. It is called Aquiscense. It can only be administered to literate people.
Applications of MMPI-2:
MMP1 2 contributes immensely to assessments in a wide variety of settings including inpatient and outpatient’s mental health, personnel, forensic and corrections.
In a number of non-clinical settings like employment, screening, admission to academic
Programmes, military induction, MMPI – 2, has proved to be useful.
MATERIAL REQUIRED :
MMPI-2 question booklet. Answer sheet, scoring sheet and manual, Pen/ Pencil
ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIAL-
Before calling in the subject, all the material was kept handy. The MMPI question booklet and answer sheet, pen / pencil was kept ready. The seating arrangement was done so as to make the subject comfortably sit on the left side of the test taker.
The participant was first given a brief description of the test. He was also informed that this test would be conducted entirely at his own discretion which implies that he could decline his participation in this experiment if it was not convenient.
He was then given a consent form and all the relevant details related to the form were explained before soliciting the signature.
INFORMED CONSENT FORM
This form seeks to take your consent to participate in a study. The following will provide you with information about the study that will help you in deciding whether or not you wish to participate. If you agree to participate, please be aware that you are free to withdraw at any point throughout the duration of the experiment.
All information you provide will remain confidential and will not be associated with your name. If for any reason during this study you do not feel comfortable, you may leave the laboratory and your information will be discarded.
When this study is complete you will be provided with the results of the experiment if you request them, and you will be free to ask any questions. Please indicate with your signature on the space below that you understand your rights and agree to participate in the experiment.
Your participation is solicited, yet strictly voluntary. All information will be kept confidential and your name will not be associated with any research findings.
SIGNATURE OF THE APPLICANT (PARENT)
A rapport was established before giving the instructions by giving him a brief detail of the study. It was also ensured that the details were explained to the participant in the language which was most agreeable to him.
All the arrangements regarding the experiment were arranged in an appropriate manner. The participant’s concerns if any were also managed for the smooth conduction of the experiment.
- NAME: Nam
- AGE: 21
- GENDER: female
- Education: Graduated
The participant was given the following instructions before beginning with the test- ‘I will be giving you a question booklet and an answer sheet. You have to mark the answer on the answer sheet you have. If a statement is true or mostly true as applied to you, blacken the circle marked T on the other hand if a statement is false or not usually true as applied toy you, blacken the circle marked F. Do try to attempt all questions. If you have any doubt please feel free to ask’.
The subject was called inside the laboratory and after the rapport formation, her preliminary information was taken. Then she was given the instructions and asked if we could proceed with the test. Wherever required prompting was done. After giving specific instructions and on completion of the test, she was asked to write an introspective report.
- It was made sure that all the environmental conditions such as adequate room temperature, ventilation, lighting and comfortable sitting arrangement was provided to the subject.
- All relevant materials were concealed and taken out when required.
- The purpose of the test was not revealed to the subject even after the administration.
- Adequate support was formed so as to provide the subject with the sense of ease and comfort so as to ensure correct responses.
- Instructions were read out thoroughly and the subject was encouraged to clarify her doubts.
- The subject was quietly observed while being tested.
- It was made sure that the subject was asked about any past or present psychiatric illness or intake of any kind of drug.
INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION:
To study the personality profile of the subject Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (MMPI-2) The applicant’s performance on the MMPI-2 suggests that he is outgoing and considers himself to have few psychological problems. However, his overuse of denial and his tendency to overextend himself may occasionally cause problems. He tends to be very aggressive, overconfident, and somewhat self-centred, with an unrealistic view of his capabilities. He tends to be an expressive, spontaneous person who might act or make decisions without careful consideration of the consequences. Without apparent cause, he may become somewhat elated, and at other times he may be moody and irritable. He seems to lack the broad cultural interests that are characteristic of many individuals with his level of Education. He believes it is acceptable to break rules as long as you don’t get caught. Items that the applicant endorsed suggest that he may be experiencing some of the following feelings associated with low mood. He is preoccupied with feelings of guilt and worthlessness and feels that he deserves punishment for the wrongs he has committed. The content of this applicant’s MMPI-2 responses suggests the following additional information concerning his interpersonal relations. He appears to have rather cynical views about life. Any work involving cooperative effort may be affected by his negativism. He may view relationships with others as threatening and harmful. He feels some family conflict, but he does not seem to view this as a major problem in his life. He may be viewed as irritable and competitive. He may experience some interpersonal problems at times because of his aggressiveness. Seminary applicants with this MMPI-2 profile tend to be quite enthusiastic, energetic, and oriented toward human service work. There is some possibility that they might be very impulsive at times. In Addition, they tend to take on more activities than they can manage or make more promises than they can fulfil. Although the applicant appears to be hard-driving and expansive, he may become overextended and have trouble completing projects. He is frequently overconfident and may make promises that are difficult to keep. He also tends to dislike practical matters, preferring to be rather vague and superficial. There is some possibility that his interpersonal style may be a bit overbearing and might create strained relationships.