Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875, in Kesswil, Switzerland. Jung believed in the “complex,” or emotionally charged associations. He collaborated with Sigmund Freud but disagreed with him about the sexual basis of neuroses. Jung founded analytical psychology, advancing the idea of introvert and extrovert personalities, archetypes, and the power of the unconscious. Jung published numerous works during his lifetime, and his ideas have had reverberations traveling beyond the field of psychiatry, extending into art, literature, and religion as well. He died in 1961.
CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS :
Jung used the term libido in two ways: first, as a diffuse and general life energy, and second, from a perspective similar to Freud’s, as narrower psychic energy that fuels the work of the personality, which he called the psyche. It is through psychic energy that psychological activities such as perceiving, thinking, feeling, and wishing are carried out.
- COMPLEX : Individualised contents of personal unconscious
- ARCHETYPES : Generalised contents of collective unconscious
ATTITUDES AND FUNCTION :
JUNG PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES :
PSYCHIC ENERGY :
Jung drew on ideas from physics to explain the functioning of psychic energy. He proposed three basic principles: opposites, equivalence, and entropy (Jung,1928).
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT :
Jung proposed that personality is determined by what we hope to be as well as by what we have been. He criticized Freud for emphasizing only past events as shapers of personality, to the exclusion of the future. Jung believed we develop and grow regardless of age and are always moving toward a more complete level of self-realization (see Table 3.2).
INDIVIDUATION: Process of becoming an individual/ whole person, responsible for analytic processes like distinguishing different aspects of personality.
TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION: Going beyond ordinary developed by bringing together different parts of personality in harmony, contains the synthetic process and different aspect of personality into a meaningful whole.
Word association test: A projective technique in which a person responds to a stimulus word with whatever word comes to mind.
Symptom analysis: Similar to catharsis, the symptom analysis technique focuses on the symptoms reported by the patient and attempts to interpret the patient’s free associations to those symptoms.
Dream analysis: A technique involving the interpretation of dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): An assessment test based on Jung’s psychological types and the attitudes of introversion and extraversion.
- Thus, like Freud, Jung made significant contribution to psychology. Concept of self-actualisation inspired many (Maslow, Allport and Murphy).
- Word association has been considered by many psychologists.
- Useful in uncovering feeling toned complexes, emotional conflicts as well detection of lie.
- Despite influencing psychology and psychiatry, it reached history, art, literature and music.
- Originality and audacity of Jung’s thinking has very few parallels in history of modern psychology.
- Jung writings were vague, contradictory and unsystematic.
- Writings of later life revealed no longer psychologist rather metaphysician.
- Concept of unconscious has no heuristic value because it failed to generate testable hypothesis.
- Ignored theory totally, basing viewpoints on comparative method.
- Edward Glover (1950) rejected archetypes concept, stating it to be highly subjective, which was only explained in terms of personal experience.